Thursday, February 6, 2020
Discussion - Assignment Example The drum-kit is focused lightly, and the choruses added in the song bring tune and music. As far as the folk version of the song is concerned, the lyrics are more appreciable, and the background music provides an ominous melody as it is a song in a low moan. Examining the history of the song, it is seen that the version shows more sentimental side of music, which was present in Anglo and African American roots showing broken, hearted country ballad. The LeadbellyÃ¢â¬â¢s version makes the music cover horrific conjecture of the time of the music at the time of wake of Southern racism in America (Garofalo and Waksman). Hence, the songs follow the tastes of consumers at the time of their emergence. The LeadbellyÃ¢â¬â¢s versions take you at the time of Depression and unplugged version follows the tastes of current consumers. The emergence of different versions has made the music business enjoyable as people relate the music to their lives and their time (Garofalo and
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Case study of yellow auto company Essay Kelly and two other westerners working in Japan on the JET program had a dispute with their Japanese supervisor over sick leave. This report aims to analyze the decisions and issues in the case study from a personality and values perspective. The key decisions identified are in relation to recruitment, contract and training. The JET program did not require the ALT candidates to have any knowledge of Japanese. The salaries received by the JET participants wereÃ considered unfair by their Japanese colleagues. The contract received by the JET participants were ambiguous and imprecise. In addition, the Japanese employees in the host institution expected the foreigners to work like the Japanese rather than following the terms of their contract. The program provided pre-departure training for JET participants, but did not provide the same level of training for Japanese employees on how to work with foreigners. Based on HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework, it is found that the weaknesses of the decisions were mainly due to the differences in values of Japanese and western cultures. Japan is a society with high power distance, extremely high uncertainty avoidance, strong collectivism, strong masculinity and a long-term vision, whereas western societies have almost the opposite values. The seniority-based salary system, lifetime employment, the expectation to conform to social norms, dedication to work, loyalty to the employers and a male-dominated workplace are all features of the Japanese management system that the JET participants were unaware of. It is recommended that the JET program reassess its recruitment policy to include Japanese as a compulsory requirement for candidates, and adjust the salary package to reflect the seniority-based culture. It is also recommended to draft a rigorous contract to avoid any ambiguity. In addition to making the pre-departure training compulsory, Japanese employees should receive the same level of cross-cultural training. Moreover, better Personality-Job fit and Person-Organization fit may be achieved if applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s personalities are taken into account in the recruitment process. Ã¢â¬â¹- 7 1. INTRODUCTION Kelly, Mark, Andrea and Suzanne, all in their 20Ã¢â¬â¢s, were hired by the JET program to work in Japan. During their placement, there was a bitter dispute between them and Mr. Higashi, the supervisor of the foreign JET participants, over sick leave. This report aims to explore the criticalÃ decisions and issues in this case from a personality and values perspective. Firstly, the critical decisions regarding recruitment, contract and training will be analyzed. Secondly, there will be a discussion of the issues in national culture, values and personality. Finally, recommendations will be provided to facilitate future improvement. 2. CRITICAL DECISIONS 2.1 Key Decision 1 Recruitment The JET program made the decision of hiring native English speakers to assist in foreign language teaching in Japan. The positions of Coordinator for International Relations (CIR) and Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) both required the candidates to have a university degree and an interest in Japan. CIRs were required to have a functional knowledge of Japanese, but ALTs were not required to do so. The above recruitment decision recognized the importance of native-speakers in foreign language teaching and the educational background of the candidates, however, the lack of Japanese language requirement for ALTs was a fundamental flaw in the recruitment decision. This language barrier caused difficulty in communication between the Japanese employees and JET participants. In addition, Mr. Higashi had to act as an interpreter because he was the only person who could speak English. Kelly, Mark, Andrea and Suzanne were young and inexperienced, yet they were paid the same salary as Japanese supervisors in the host institution. According to Adhikari (2005) and Hofstede (1993), Japan has a unique culture in which employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ salaries are based on seniority rather than position. It is therefore unsurprising that the Japanese employees, all worked for more than 20 years in their career, felt uncomfortable about the salary of the JET participants. 2.2 Key Decision 2 Contract All the JET participants in the office had a standard North American contract which set out the working hours, number of vacation days and sick leave they were entitled to. However after Kelly, Mark and Suzanne fell ill, they wereÃ forced to use 2 paid vacation days rather than sick leave, which caused a serious tension between the JETs and Mr. Higashi. The strength of the contract was that it stated a set of rules for the JET participants to follow, but the weakness was that it was not rigorously written. Shaules (2008) argues that western contracts are explicit and detailed, whereas Japanese contracts can be flexible and open to interpretation. This cultural difference is reflected in the contract received by the JET participants. The definitions of Ã¢â¬Å"paid leaveÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"paid holidaysÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"special holidaysÃ¢â¬ were ambiguous and they seemed to be used interchangeably within the contract. Section 1 of Article 11 says that the JET participants are entitled to 20 paid holidays, but Section 3 of Article 12 says that the special holidays (including sick leave) are paid holidays. Depending on the interpretation of Ã¢â¬Å"paid holidaysÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"special holidaysÃ¢â¬ , these two clauses either contradict with each other or repeat themselves. Apart from the wording of the contract, the ability to honour the contract was also problematic. Although the JET participants acted within the terms of their contract, their Japanese colleagues still expected them to stay past 5pm on weekdays and work on Saturdays. The contract said that a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s certificate was only required if the JET participants took three or more consecutive days of sick leave, but Mr. Higashi asked Kelly to bring in the note even though she only took 2 dayÃ¢â¬â¢s sick leave. 2.3 Key Decision 3 Training The Conference of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR) provided the JET participants with lots of information about working and living in Japan, and offered pre-departure training sessions about life in Japan and its potential problems. The strength of the above decision was that it recognized the cultural differences of Japan and western countries and the challenges faced by those JET participants working in Japan. The weaknesses of the decision were thatÃ it did not make the pre-departure training sessions compulsory, and it did not offer similar training sessions for Japanese employees on the cultural differences and problems of working with westerners. The consequences of the above weaknesses were that Kelly found herself in unfamiliar and difficult situations because she had no experience or knowledge of the Japanese workplace. Had she attended the training sessions, she would have been better prepared for the difficulties of working in another country. Similarly, due to poor knowledge and understanding, the Japanese colleagues disapproved the lack of commitment of the JET participants, and did not know how to deal with them in an effective and harmonious manner. If the Japanese employees had received training on working with westerners, they would have had a better working relationship with the JET participants. 3. ISSUES 3.1 National Cultures and Values The weaknesses of the key decisions discussed in Section 2 mainly rooted from the differences in national cultures and values. HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1980, 1983, 1991, 1993, 2001) Framework for Assessing Cultures provides a theoretical ground for cross cultural management and research. The framework identified five value dimensions of national culture: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, and long/short-term orientation. The GLOBE Framework (House, et al., 2001; House, Javidan and Dorfman, 2002; Javidan, et al., 2005; Robbins and Judge, 2007) further extended HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework to include assertiveness, in-group collectivism, performance orientation and humane orientation. Because the JET participants in the case study came from Canada, Great Britain and United States, the western cultures and values discussed below will refer to these specific countries. According to HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) findings, Japan has a higher power distance than western cultures, although the difference is not significant. However, Japan ranked notably higher inÃ uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, masculinity and long-term orientation. 3.1.1 Power Distance Japan has a seniority-based promotion and reward management system and a highly hierarchical society in general (Adhikari, 2005; Oishi, et al. 2005; Shaules; 2008). This is mainly influenced by the Confucian values which emphasize hierarchy and harmony. Mr. Higashi acted more like a father than a manager, because in a traditional Confucian family, the father is the head and always at the top of the hierarchy. Unaware of these Japanese values, the JET participants constantly challenged the authority of their supervisors. As a result, the Japanese employees working at the senior level were annoyed that these inexperienced young foreigners were hired to tell them how to do their jobs. Moreover, paying a manager-level salary to these young foreigners were also against the Japanese norm of a seniority-based salary system. 3.1.2 Uncertainty Avoidance Adhikari (2005), Brightman (2005) and Shaules (2008) all agree that Japanese culture expects everyone to conform to social norms and discourages individualism. This confirms the high uncertainty avoidance in Japanese society as claimed by Hofstede. Uncertainty avoidance was the reason why Mr. Higashi insisted to deal with the foreign JETS in the Japanese way. Because Mr. Higashi had lived all his life in Japan, the belief of conforming to social norms was deeply rooted in him. Shaules (2008) asserts that Japanese prefer to resolve conflicts in an indirect and mediated manner, whereas westerners tend to adopt a direct rule-based approach. This explains why the JET participants clearly referred to the contract and tried to resolve the sick leave issue with Mr. Higashi in a direct manner. On the other hand, even though Mr. Higashi was extremely agitated, he still chose to resolve the matter through the accountant rather than clarifying it there and then. 3.1.3 Collectivism Various literature (Adhikari, 2005; Brightman, 2005; Javidan et al., 2005; Lucier et al., 1992; Oishi et al., 2005; Shaules, 2008; Wang et al., 2005) claims that Japan is a highly collective society, which means that the needs of a group are always viewed as more important than individual needs, andÃ individuals are expected to sacrifice their own needs if there is a conflict between them. On the contrary, western societies tend to encourage individualism (Hofstede, 1991; Javidan et al., 2005). Scholars believe that the strong level of collectivism in Japan is due to the influence of Confucian values, which emphasize group orientation, relationships between individuals and showing respect (Fang, 2003, Wang et al., 2005; Yan, 2004). This explains why Japanese employees are so dedicated to their work and have great loyalty to their employers, whereas the JET participants prefer to use every single day of their holiday and fulfil their personal goals. 3.1.4 Masculinity Japan ranked No.1 in masculinity in HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) findings. Women often leave their work to look after the family after getting married, therefore, very few women work at the senior management level in Japan (Adhikari, 2005; Kei et al., 2010). This was the reason why all senior Japanese employees in the JET program were men. This also explains why Mr. Higashi kept asking Kelly to sign up to flower arranging classes or tea ceremony, as these were traditionally considered womenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. 3.1.5 Long-term Orientation Japan has a long-term oriented culture whereas western cultures tend to be short-term oriented (Lucier et al., 1992; Fang, 2003). One of the key characteristics of Japanese-style management is lifetime employment (Adhikari, 2005; Lucier et al., 1992). This was why the Japanese employees and supervisors all complained that the JET participants were never long enough to become part of the team, as they viewed the organization as a long-term family. On the other hand, Kelly had a short-term aim to make money, see the other part of the world and improve her Japanese. With this mismatch between the goals of the Japanese and western employees, neither of them could understand each other. 3.2 Personality The Big Five Model identified five factors of personality: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience (Robbins and Judge, 2007; Roccas et al., 2002). It was clear that the JET participants and the Japanese employees had very different personalities. For example, Mark is an introvert who prefers to work alone, whereas mostÃ Japanese employees tend to be extroverts who enjoy social gatherings after work. Mr. Higashi and other Japanese employees are highly conscientious whereas the JET participants are less so. The JET participants have lower emotional stability because they tend to get angry and distressed easily. In order to increase employee job satisfaction and reduce turnover, Holland (1996) and Gardner et al. (2012) promote the theory of Personality-Job fit and Person-Organization fit. This means to fit an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality with the characteristics of the job and the organization. The JET program should learn from the issues identified in this report and aim to increase the Personality-Job fit and Person-Organization fit in its future recruitment process. 4. CONCLUSION This report analyzed the critical decisions and issues in the case study from a personality and values perspective. The analysis was mainly based on HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework, together with the Big Five Model, GLOBE Framework and HollandÃ¢â¬â¢s Person-Job Fit theory. It has been identified that the weaknesses of the decisions were mainly due to the lack of mutual understanding in culture and values. Different personalities also affected the harmony of the work relationship in this case. The next section will list the recommended actions in order to overcome the weaknesses identified in the analysis. 5. RECOMMENDATIONS The JET program is advised to take the following actions: 1. to introduce Japanese language requirements for all JET participants; 2. to assess the applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ personality in order to increase Personality-Job fit and Person-Organization fit; 3. to revise the remuneration package of JET participants so that they receive less salary than the Japanese supervisors; 4. to appoint a lawyer experienced in employment contract to draft a detailed and rigorous contract; 5. to make pre-departure training and orientation a compulsory requirement for JET participants; 6. to provide cross-cultural training to Japanese employees; 7. to consider extending theÃ maximum term of the JET participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ contract or even consider offering permanent positions. Ã¢â¬â¹- 7 REFERENCES Adhikari, D. R. (2005) National Factors and Employment Relations in Japan, Japan Institute of Labour Policy and Training, Tokyo. Available from [accessed: 30/10/2013]. Brightman, J.D. (2005) Asian Culture Brief Japan, National Technical Assistance Centre, 2(6), available from [accessed 31/10/2013] Fang, T. (2003) Ã¢â¬ËA critique of HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth national culture dimensionÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(3), pp.347-368. Gardner, W.L., Reithel, B.J., Cogliser, C.C., Walumbwa, F.O. and Foley, R.T. (2012), Ã¢â¬ËMatching personality and organizational culture: effects of recruitment strategy and the Five-Factor Model on Subjective Person-Organization FitÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Communication Quarterly, 26(4), pp.585-622. Hofstede, G. (1980) CultureÃ¢â¬â¢s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (1983) Ã¢â¬ËDimensions of National Cultures in Fifty Countries and Three RegionsÃ¢â¬â¢, In: J.B. Deregowski, S. Dziurawiec and R.C. Annis (eds.) Expiscations in Cross-cultural Psychology, pp. 335-355. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger. Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill. Hofstede, G. (1993) Ã¢â¬ËCultural Constraints in Management TheoriesÃ¢â¬â¢, Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), pp. 81-94. Hofstede, G. (2001) CultureÃ¢â¬â¢s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Holland, J.L. (1996) Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Exploring careers with a typology: What we have learned and some new directionsÃ¢â¬â¢, American Psychologist, 51, pp.397-406. House, R., Javidan, M.,Hanges, P. and Dorfman, P. (2001) Ã¢â¬ËProject GLOBE: An IntroductionÃ¢â¬â¢, Applied Psychology: An international Review, 50(4), pp.489-505. House, R., Javidan, M. and Dorfman, P. (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBEÃ¢â¬ , Journal of World Business, 37, pp. 3-10. Javidan, M., Stahl., G.K., Brodbeck, F. and Wilderom, C.P.M. (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Cross-border transfer of knowledge: Cultural lessons from Project GLOBEÃ¢â¬ , Academy of Management Executive, 19(2), pp. 59-76. Kei, K., Koichi, T. and Miwako, H. (2010) The survey of Japanese value orientation: analysis of trends over thirty-five years, NHK Broadcasting Studies, Japan. Lucier, C., Boucher, M. White, J. Cangemi, J. and Kowalski, C. (1992) Ã¢â¬ËExploring values of Japanese and American management systemsÃ¢â¬â¢, Education, 112(4), pp. 487-498. Oishi, S., Hajm, J., Schimmack, U., Radhakrishan, P., Dzokoto, V. and Ahadi, S. (2005), Ã¢â¬ËThe measurement of values across cultures: a pairwise comparison approachÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Research and Personality, 39, pp.299-305. Robbins, S. P. and Judge, T. A. (2007) Organizational Behaviour, 12th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Roccas, S. Sagiv, L., Schwarts, S.H. and Knafo, A. (2002) Ã¢â¬ËThe Big Five personality factors and personal valuesÃ¢â¬â¢, PSPB, 28(6), pp.789-801. Shaules, J. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËThe deep culture of Japanese valuesÃ¢â¬â¢, tcworld, available from [accessed 30/10/2013]. Wang, J., Wang, G.G., Ruona, W.E.A. and Rojewski, J.W.(2005), Ã¢â¬ËConfucian values and the implications for international HRDÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Development International, 8(3), pp.311-326. Yan, J. (2004) Ã¢â¬ËThe influence of Confucian ideology on conflict in Chinese family businessÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Cross Culture Management, 4(1), pp. 5-17.
Monday, January 20, 2020
James Fenimore Cooper was one of the pioneers in American novel writing. Cooper used the life and things he had experienced and turned them into best-selling novels that have held up throughout the years. He became famous with the publication of the wilderness adventures. Along with the success these books brought, so to came some criticism. To truly understand Coopers books you have to delve deeply into them and know from where he got the ideas for the stories. James Fenimore Cooper was born in Burlington, New Jersey on September 15th 1789 (Ã¢â¬Å"James Fenimore Cooper,Ã¢â¬ American Eras, n.p.). He was the eleventh child of William Cooper and Elizabeth Fenimore Cooper, whom he would later adopt part of his name from. His father was a land speculator, judge and Federalist politician (Ã¢â¬Å"James Fenimore CooperÃ¢â¬ , DISCovering Biography, n.p.). In the early years of Fenimore CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s life the family relocated from Burlington to the wilderness of Ostego Lake, New York. There, William Cooper built Ostego hall and developed the surrounding area as Cooperstown (Ã¢â¬Å"JFCÃ¢â¬ , DISCovering Biography, n.p.). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1803 James Fenimore Cooper entered Yale at the tender age of thirteen years. However his immaturity proved to be consequential as he was expelled for blowing up a classmateÃ¢â¬â¢s door with gunpowder (Ã¢â¬Å"JFCÃ¢â¬ , DISCovering Biography, n.p.). After his expulsion, presumably as a consequence for his actions, Cooper joined the Navy and sailed aboard the Stirling. On the ship he was witness to many adventures such as pursuit by pirates and British impressments of U.S. sailors (JFC, DISCovering Biography, n.p.). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In December of 1809 William Cooper died. However upon his death, he left James Cooper a large sum of money ($50,000). This money did not all go into CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s pocket as he had to use some of it to care for his siblings (JFC, DISCovering Biography, n.p.). In May of the next year James would request a twelve-month break from the Navy to tend to family business. In his time from the Navy, Cooper met Susan Augusta DeLancey, the daughter of a country squire. They would marry on January 1, 1811 (JFC, DISCovering Biography, n.p.). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cooper was an avid reader in his early adulthood. After reading a few pages of Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Precaution, he threw the book down in disgust and is claimed to have said, Ã¢â¬Å"I coul... ...Criticism (210). Maulsby disagrees that the story fails to arrive at a conclusion. To him, Deerslayer is the account of a mission undertaken by a hero and the mission is completed in the end. It was good to see someone defend against Twains critical attacks on Coopers style (Maulsby, 210-211). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In all of Coopers books there is a very vivid depiction of the surroundings writes W.C. Brownell in Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism (214). The setting really becomes part of the stories that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the same if there were a remotely different setting. Cooper had extensive exposure in the two types of settings he wrote in, wilderness and nautical, which probably facilitated the process of describing the surroundings. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To think that James Fenimore Cooper was an always cheerful, always upbeat man who wrote well received novels would be incorrect. He managed to insult people on both sides of the Atlantic and still achieve stardom. Cooper was disliked by the common person and the author alike; despite the way people disliked Cooper the man, they could not attack his novels as he was considered the first great American Novelist.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The human nature is an interesting subject to study, each individual has their own way of seeing things in their own perspective or ways of persuading others, in order to make sense of their own lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s. Fundamental attribution error being one important concept, this explains a persons behavior, how a person can underestimate circumstances yet overestimate ones characteristics. For example if a man didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold the door for woman when walking into a store, the woman behind him might conclude that man doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have manners or is uncivil. That woman interrupted the situation in her perspective without considering situational factors, such as, he might have been running late or he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t notice another person behind him. People will judge primarily on their experience with that individual without considering other factors or placing their selves in their situation. An important researcher known as Milgram, he challenged the demands of authority on obedience, and how far are people willing to conform to orders. Milgram analyses social compliance and obedience toward superior in his experiment. In the study there is a learner, teacher and administrator, each of whom play an important role in the experiment. The teacher is the one giving the questions to the learner and if the learner gets the answer wrong the teacher is obligated to shock the learner. The administrator has the authority to tell the teacher to increase the level on the shock generator. When the learner continues get an answer incorrect the shocks get stronger from 15 to 450 volts and so the learner refuses to continue because he cannot endure anymore pain. The teacher complies with the commands given by administrator to keep going even if the learner is hurt. Milgram experiment was successful and demonstrates how people obey to represent cooperativeness or by fear even if it goes against better judgment. The concept of fundamental attribution error and MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s research on obedience takes an important role in DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s response to his history teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s question to why so many German people complied with HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s order to systematically slaughter millions of innocent Jews. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s response being, Ã¢â¬Å"because GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s were unusually cruel, sadistic people with abnormal and twisted personalities. Ã¢â¬ The fundamental attribution error in DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s response is when he penalized every single person in the German population for being all cruel, sadistic, abnormal and twisted personalities. He used Germans behavior as a significant factor as their external disposition to judge all Germans for their actions. Also in DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s response, the German population was responsible for the harm to the Jewish community, although Hitler was the prime leader and influenced the outbreak of the Nazi Party. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership illustrates a great example of MilgramÃ¢â¬â¢s research, of abuse of power and obedience in German society. Milgram reveals how people, in this situation German citizens obeyed to higher authority either because of fear or collaboration. David was not able to see the underlining causation of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s injustice, although this is common act, people are usually compelled to unrightfully circumstances and overestimating people.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Based upon the reading of both Plato and Aristotle I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help noticing that they had the same idea towards what can make an effective society. Starting with elitism as a basis, they both defined it as the rule of the few who are excellent in ruling. Although both Aristotle and Plato both agree on the definition they had two different beliefs as to what elitism was according to their beliefs. Aristotle believed that those who hold the power in this elitist political system was through a system of hereditary. On the other hand Plato strongly believed the opposite to his teacher, he believed that the rulers had to go through an extensive and exhaustive training and a meticulous selection process to be considered for the role of the true and rightful leader. After seeing elitism we can go into the political philosophy of egalitarianism, which can be defined in very simple terms, People should be treated as equals, should treat one another as equals, should relate as equals, o r enjoy an equality of social status of some sort. Aristotle is seen as the advocate for inequality in his work, but he had the belief, but in Politics the issue of equality comes up various times, he believes that the desire for equality is what ignites conflict, and that the greed of imposing power over equality always wins and that annoyed him. He believes that the city needs to be ruled by those who are alike. Plato in the other hand, believed in equality, but he had a group of people that wereShow MoreRelated Aristotle vs. Plato Essay1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAristotle vs. Plato Excellence is a function which renders excellent the thing of which it is a function is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of virtue. What does this definition really mean though? Plato and Aristotle both had their own unique arguments devoted to the topic at hand, and their own ways of describing what virtue really is. Defining virtue may seem to be an easy taste, but to truly understand the arguments behind the definition can prove to be very challenging. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Before discussing virtueRead MoreCritical Analysis of Plato and Aristotle1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPOL 311 (HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT) TOPIC A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT WRITTEN BY OKWOR, STEPHEN USHIE 09/ED/EF/814 DEPT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS (POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT) FACULTY OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO DR. EJERE DEPT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO AKWA IBOM STATE MAY, 2012 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT In order to compare these great philosophers, it isRead MoreComparing Aristotle s 8 1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNow the question is what values should one have to rule, what makes them qualified compared to others. Plato outlines the different aspects of government and why he believes an aristocracy would be better form of government. In book 8 Socrates starts to wrap up his depiction of a just city. He starts to break down the four unjust constitutions of the city and man. Timocracy, which is represented by the honor-driven man who resembles and rules that sort of government. There is an oligarchy, ruledRead MoreHistorical Views of Leadership: Plato and Aristotle1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommonly held to begin with Herodotus of ancient Athens, it is not surprising that we should examine the historical views of leadership through the eyes of two titans of Greek thought: Plato and Aristotle. Both men lived in 4th century BCE Athens, so much of their background and experience was shared. Aristotle was the younger of the two, and he was PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s student. Where leadership is concerned, both philosophers agreed that the Ã¢â¬Å"best menÃ¢â¬ should rule, and that the purpose of leadership was theRead MoreThe Ideal City Of Plato1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPlato was a mentor of Aristotle lending ideas to his student about composition and operation of citizens, city state, and political regimes. Although Aristotle criticized PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of ranking democracy at a fourth position out of five competing systems of government, he agreed with Plato that democracy is the corrupt form of government as it violates justice of proportionality. The concept of justice of proportionality is to answer who is the most deserving. This is explained in an analogy ofRead MorePolitical Philosophy, By Steven Cahn1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesphilosophers such as Socrates, Plato, Arist otle, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau created the circumstances to enable the fundamental principals of philosophy and politics. These knowledgeable, astute and significant men have helped to achieve the structure of our past and present democracy as well as a plan of action for the rights and values that we as citizens can all relate to today. They are grounded in their thinking and tied together as a whole in ideas and practices of politics, philosophy and humankindRead MoreThe Formations Of The Mankind System1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshould not be judged more roughly because of one s skin color or one should not wait longer for service because of what one is wearing. On account of our desire for fairness and equality, the assurance of justice is commonly a background for a good society. Despite the fact that laws of the land must be fair and justly administrated, the history is cluttered with various examples of governments that committed unjust actions to their citizens. Such examples bring up the question of what should be doneRead MorePlato Vs Aristotle : Determining Good1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Plato vs. Aristotle: Determining Good In this paper, I will present both Plato and AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments for what their personal views are on determining good. Plato believed that knowing good was equal to doing good. He said that if a person knows the right thing that will automatically lead him to do the right thing. Aristotle on the other hand believed that knowing good was not enough to be good. He believed that one had to practice good if one is to be good. Plato was idealistic. He believedRead MorePlato and Aristotle: An Analysis1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Plato and Aristotle regarding the best political association. Quotes from Politics and the Republic are used to support the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis. Plato and Aristotle: An Analysis Determining the best form of political association was important to the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and each of them expressed his opinion in important works such as the Republic and Politics. In explaining, comparing, and contrasting the political philosophies of Plato and Aristotle, itRead MoreStudent Teacher1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshaping their rational and moral virtues and hence, play an important role in molding the society as a whole. The education system of ancient India and Greece shared some common characteristics. In both cultures, teachers and their disciples conglomerated at specific places earmarked for educational purposes. This is where students gained both spiritual and material education from their teachers. All ancient societies functioned according to a set of moral codes and social hierarchy and teachers were at
Friday, December 27, 2019
Meat and other animal products are a serious environmental issue, leading the Atlantic chapter of the Sierra Club to call animal products, a Hummer on a plate. However, free-range, organic, or local meats are not the solution. Free-Range, Cage-Free, Pasture-Raised Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Factory farmers are not animal-hating sadists who confine the animals for fun. Factory farming started because scientists in the 1960s were looking for a way to meet the meat demands of an exploding human population. The only way the U.S. can feed animal products to hundreds of millions of people is to grow grain as an intense monoculture, turn that grain into animal feed, and then give that feed to intensively confined animals. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough available land on earth to raise all livestock free-range or cage-free. The United Nations reports that livestock now use 30% of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s entire land surface, mostly permanent pasture but also including 33% of the global arable land used to produce feed for livestock. Free-range, pasture-fed animals would require even more land on which to feed. They require even more food and water than factory-farmed animals because they are exercising more. To meet the increasing demand for grass-fed beef, South American rainforests are being cleared to produce more pasture for organic, grass-fed beef to be exported. Only 3% of the beef produced in the U.S. is grass-fed, and already, thousands of wild horses are displaced by this relatively small number of cattle. The U.S. alone has 94.5 million beef cattle. One farmer estimates that it takes 2.5 to 35 acres of pasture, depending on the quality of the pasture, to raise a grass-fed cow. Using the more conservative figure of 2.5 acres of pasture, this means we need approximately 250 million acres to create grazing pastures for every cow in the U.S. Thats over 390,000 square miles, which is more than 10% of all the land in the U.S. Organic Meat Raising animals organically does not reduce the amount of food or water required to produce meat, and the animals will produce just as much waste. Under the National Organic Program administered by the USDA, organic certification for animal products has certain minimum care requirements under 7 C.F.R. 205, such as access to the outdoors, shade, shelter, exercise areas, fresh air, and direct sunlight (7 C.F.R. 205.239). Manure must also be managed in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy metals, or pathogenic organisms and optimizes recycling of nutrients (7. C.F.R. 205.203) Organic livestock must also be fed organically produced feed and cannot be given growth hormones (7 C.F.R. 205.237). While organic meat does offer some environmental and health benefits over factory farming in terms of residue, waste management, pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, the livestock does not consume fewer resources or produce less manure. Animals raised organically are still slaughtered, and organic meat is just as wasteful, if not more wasteful, than factory-farmed meat. Local Meat We hear that one way to be eco-friendly is to eat locally, to reduce the number of resources required to deliver food to our table. Locavores strive to build their diet around food produced within a certain distance from their home. While eating locally might reduce your impact on the environment, the reduction is not as great as some might believe and other factors are more important. According to CNN, an Oxfam report titled, Fair Miles - Recharting the Food Miles Map, found that the way in which food is produced is more important than how far that food is transported. The amount of energy, fertilizer, and other resources used on the farm may have more environmental significance than the transportation of the final product. Food miles are not always a good yardstick. Buying from a small, local conventional farm may have a greater carbon footprint than buying from a large, organic farm thousands of miles away. Organic or not, the larger farm also has the economy of scale on its side. And as a 2008 article in The Guardian points out, buying fresh produce from halfway around the world has a lower carbon footprint than buying local apples out of season that has been in cold storage for ten months. In The Locavore Myth, James E. McWilliams writes: One analysis, by Rich Pirog of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, showed that transportation accounts for only 11% of foods carbon footprint. A fourth of the energy required to produce food is expended in the consumers kitchen. Still more energy is consumed per meal in a restaurant, since restaurants throw away most of their leftovers... The average American eats 273 pounds of meat a year. Give up red meat once a week and youll save as much energy as if the only food miles in your diet were the distance to the nearest truck farmer. If you want to make a statement, ride your bike to the farmers market. If you want to reduce greenhouse gases, become a vegetarian. While buying locally produced meat will reduce the amount of fuel needed to transport your food, it does not change the fact that animal agriculture requires an inordinate amount of resources and produces a great deal of waste and pollution. Tara Garnett of the Food Climate Research Network stated: There is only one way of being sure that you cut down on your carbon emissions when buying food: stop eating meat, milk, butter and cheese... These come from ruminantsÃ¢â¬âsheep and cattleÃ¢â¬âthat produce a great deal of harmful methane. In other words, it is not the source of the food that matters but the kind of food you eat. All things being equal, eating locally is better than eating food that has to be transported thousands of miles, but the environmental advantages of locavorism pale in comparison with those of going vegan. Lastly, one can choose to be an organic, vegan locavore to reap the environmental benefits of all three concepts. They are not mutually exclusive.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Explain the contribution of the industrial revolution to the white settlement of Australia The rapid inflation of the industrial revolution in Britain lead to the expansion of British interests to the White settlement of Australia. Workers in the cities didn t get paid much for their services and committed crimes to get resources, jails started to overflow and the USA wouldn t take any more convicts once they declared independence. The British empire needed a steady supply of naval materials such as flax and timber as the British empire depended on their naval empire for goods and protection. Brittish trade in the Pacific was very minimal and with a colony in Australia, they would have direct access to the pacific and Asian market. Protection of the Brittish empire in Asia was minimal and Brittish enemies surrounded India, with a port in Australia safe travel could be initiated and in the event of war, protection was close. Britains need for expansion due to the industrial revolution lead to the colonisation on Australia. During the 18th century crime in Britain hit an all time high which lead to the colonisation of Australia. Population levels in Britain exploded due to the end of major plagues which lead to a rapid transformation in society. Prosperity increased in agriculture and industry which uprooted a lot of people from traditional lives which lead to the industrial revolution. Small landholders were driven off their land and migrated to the cities to get a jobShow MoreRelatedIs Marxism Still Relevant Today? Essay2189 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) had brought about significant changes in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and technology and subsequently established an era of unprecedented economic growth in capitalist economies. It was within this era that Karl Marx had observed the deprivation and inequality experienced by men of the proletariat, the working class, who had laboured excessively for hours under inhumane conditions to earn a minimum w age while the bourgeoisie, the capitalistRead MoreHistory And Effect Of The Gold Rush1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesused to extract gold from rivers and rocks. About two to the thirds of the forty-niners were Americans. Most of these were white men who came from New England. However, Native Americans, free blacks, and enslaved African Americans also worked the mines. Thousands of experienced miners came from Sonora in Mexico. Other foreign miners came from Europe, South America, Australia, and China. Most of the Chinese miners were peasant farmers who fled from a region that had suffered several crop failuresRead MoreHistory And Effect Of The Gold Rush1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto extract gold from rivers and rocks. About two to the thirds of the forty of the miners were Americans. Most of these were white men who came from New England. However, Native Americans, free blacks, and enslaved African Americans also worked the mines. Thousands of experienced miners came from Sonora in Mexico . Other foreign miners came from Europe, South America, Australia, and China. Most of the Chinese miners were peasant farmers who fled from a region that had suffered several crop failuresRead MoreRevolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750Ã¢â¬â185010951 Words Ã |Ã 44 PagesCHAPTER 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750Ã¢â¬â1850 I. Prelude to Revolution: The Eighteenth-Century Crisis A. Colonial Wars and Fiscal Crises 1. Rivalry among the European powers intensified in the early 1600s as the Dutch Attacked Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas and in Asia. In the 1600s and 1700s the British then checked Dutch commercial and colonial ambitions and went on to defeat France in the Seven Years War (1756Ã¢â¬â1763)Read MoreHunting and Gathering Essay2889 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagescultures as a living example of simplicity and sustainability in food procurement. One such group of people who still forage are the indigenous Aborigines of Australia. This paper will focus on a specific Aborigine group, the Alyawara, and examine their way of life, methods of hunting and gathering, rituals and customs, as well as the impact the developed world has had on their culture. Like the Dobe Ju/Ã¢â¬â¢hoansi of the Kalahari desert and the Inuit of the arctic, the Alyawara traditionally reliedRead MoreChapter 5 8 Essay6131 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesmessages from the Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentÃ¢â¬â¢s governing board, and evaluate how these points affect you now and will affect you and your children in the future. The message of the Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Governing Board is that human impacts on this resilient natural world are so unprecedented and extensive that we crossed the line into unsustainable consumption some time ago and are now depleting ecosystem capital stock instead of living off its sustainable goods and services. ChapterRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesParadigm for an Urban World Ã¢â¬ ¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ GabrielleRead MoreInstitution as the Fundamental Cause of Long Tern Growth39832 Words Ã |Ã 160 Pagesinstitutions that give them political power. However, de facto political power occasionally creates changes in political institutions. While these changes are sometimes discontinuous, for example when an imbalance of power leads to a revolution or the threat of revolution leads to major reforms in political institutions, often they simply inÃ¯ ¬âuence the way existing political institutions function, for example, whether the rules laid down in a particular constitution are respected as in most functioningRead MoreModern History.Hsc.2012 Essay25799 Words Ã |Ã 104 Pagesthe British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, America is too proud to fight and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. - Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts asRead MoreIntroduction to Large Scale Organizations18988 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesof the government -Operate within limits of their budget and relevant legislation -E.g. Health and Ageing, Education, etc. -Government owned organisations that are often self funded -Aim to provide a service whilst also pursuing own profits -E.g. Australia Post, Medibank Private -Often corporatised (process of public-sector organisation operating as if they were part of the private sector hence primarily aiming to make a profit) Public Private Partnership (PPP s) Government services or private